Escudo de la República de Colombia Escudo de la República de Colombia
UN Periódico Digital

Resultados de Búsqueda:

UN Periódico Digital
Education is the first strategy against femicide

The problem of violence against women is evidenced in figures of UN Women. In 2013, 35% of the women had endured some type of physical or sexual violence; In Australia, Canada, Israel, South Africa and the United States between 40 and 70% of the murders of women was a consequence of violence exerted by the partner of the victim.

According to a study presented by Dr. Alexan­dra Marthe Manjarrés in the journal Forensis, in Colombia, the Office of the Medical Examiner reported 527,284 cases in the context of violence against women between 2007 and 2016. Sundays are the days of more reported cases (24%), followed by Saturdays (15%) and Mondays (14 %).

Furthermore, the figures for murders of women during the last years are: In 2015 there were 140 fewer cases than in 2014; in 2016 the number of cases increased with 731 murdered women. During the first ten months of 2014, on average 2.6 women were murdered a day; 2.2 in 2015, and 2.4 in 2016, according to data of the Department of the Medical Examiner and Forensic Sciences.

Therefore, the concerning figures of violence against women led to recognizing a political category which frameworks and complaints of the systematicity of the phenomenon: Femicide.

The word, “femicide” was presented for the first time in 1976 by a women’s rights activist and writer Diana Russell at the International Tribunal on Crimes against Women in Brussels. After, along with writer Jill Radford, she approached this phenomenon more amply, considering women murders due to misogynous reasons is a type of sexual violence due, in part of the patriarch model.

Another definition is the one by Mexican lawyer Marcela Lagarde, which says: “For femicide to occur criminally, several actions need to occur simultaneously, silence, omission, negligence and partial or total collusion of the authorities in charge of preventing and correcting these types of crimes; and of course, their blindness, sexist and misogynous prejudice against women. When the government is a structural part of the issue due to its patriarchal signs and preserving said order, femicide is a state crime.”

In an attempt to make violence against women evident and the incapability of the penal measures to solve the problem the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNal) in Bogotá Faculty of Law, Political, and Social Sciences gathered several experts to shed light on the topic and look for answers. The result of the research project carried out by the UNal “Nullum crimen sine lege “School of Penal Law is the book called,”Feminicidio y educación: aproximaciones y construcción del discurso desde la práctica social. (Femicide and education: Approaches and building of the speech from the social practice standpoint.)

The professor linked to the book is Professor Omar Huertas Díaz, in charge of streamlining the documentary work analysis, says they classified several categories as homicide and femicide, but they should not be interpreted unanimously. “They need to be studied as a set, according to the situational framework where the issue is approached,” he added.

The problem of violence against women is evidenced in figures of UN Women. In 2013, 35% of the women had endured some type of physical or sexual violence; In Australia, Canada, Israel, South Africa and the United States between 40 and 70% of the murders of women was a consequence of violence exerted by the partner of the victim.

According to a study presented by Dr. Alexan­dra Marthe Manjarrés in the journal Forensis, in Colombia, the Office of the Medical Examiner reported 527,284 cases in the context of violence against women between 2007 and 2016. Sundays are the days of more reported cases (24%), followed by Saturdays (15%) and Mondays (14 %).

Furthermore, the figures for murders of women during the last years are: In 2015 there were 140 fewer cases than in 2014; in 2016 the number of cases increased with 731 murdered women. During the first ten months of 2014, on average 2.6 women were murdered a day; 2.2 in 2015, and 2.4 in 2016, according to data of the Department of the Medical Examiner and Forensic Sciences.

Therefore, the concerning figures of violence against women led to recognizing a political category which frameworks and complaints of the systematicity of the phenomenon: Femicide.

The word, “femicide” was presented for the first time in 1976 by a women’s rights activist and writer Diana Russell at the International Tribunal on Crimes against Women in Brussels. After, along with writer Jill Radford, she approached this phenomenon more amply, considering women murders due to misogynous reasons is a type of sexual violence due, in part of the patriarch model.

Another definition is the one by Mexican lawyer Marcela Lagarde, which says: “For femicide to occur criminally, several actions need to occur simultaneously, silence, omission, negligence and partial or total collusion of the authorities in charge of preventing and correcting these types of crimes; and of course, their blindness, sexist and misogynous prejudice against women. When the government is a structural part of the issue due to its patriarchal signs and preserving said order, femicide is a state crime.”

In an attempt to make violence against women evident and the incapability of the penal measures to solve the problem the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNal) in Bogotá Faculty of Law, Political, and Social Sciences gathered several experts to shed light on the topic and look for answers. The result of the research project carried out by the UNal “Nullum crimen sine lege “School of Penal Law is the book called,”Feminicidio y educación: aproximaciones y construcción del discurso desde la práctica social. (Femicide and education: Approaches and building of the speech from the social practice standpoint.)

The professor linked to the book is Professor Omar Huertas Díaz, in charge of streamlining the documentary work analysis, says they classified several categories as homicide and femicide, but they should not be interpreted unanimously. “They need to be studied as a set, according to the situational framework where the issue is approached,” he added.

Convictions with scarce effectiveness   

Huertas highlights that reviewing the types of femicides proposed by the researchers and international organisms they mistakenly perceive that all deaths of women are femicides. This encourages a victim status, marginalizing the phenomenon making it trivial. Furthermore, it ends up fragmenting the rights of those incriminated or judged by supposed acts of femicide.

“In this sense, the punishable act is focused around a male perpetrator, in relation to virility, aggression and violence expressions and advancing them in a patriarchal structure. Also, configuring women as almost always the victim as if it was the only role they could exert. They scenario perpetuates the protecting role of the government by using punitive strategies with the purpose of protecting women as victims or underprivileged but not with the purpose of empowering women as with the same capabilities of men,” said Huertas.

Another aspect of the research project was verifying the scarce effectiveness of penalizing femicides in countries of the region. In Argentina, Guatemala, and Venezuela the figures of violence against women increase. Although Argentina con­siders femicide as an aggravating circumstance of homicide and apply life in prison punishment, the figures have increased, speaking volumes of the inoperability of these types of measures.

According to the findings of researchers Carlos Eduardo Maldonado, Cecilia Correa de Molina and Omar Huertas, the same occurs in Guatemala, where femicides are only penalized with 25 to 50 years in prison. Another significant case is Venezuela, especially for two reasons:

  • There are no records of femicide behavior.
  • Venezuela was classified in 2015 as the second most violent country in the world, inferring the consequences of these types of dynamics over the population.

In Colombia, besides the established in the Penal Code, Ley 1761 of 2015, also called the “Rosa Elvira Cely Law”, typified femicide as an autonomous crime and defined as: “Who causes the death of a woman, due to her condition as a woman or for reason of identity…”

Huertas highlights that reviewing the types of femicides proposed by the researchers and international organisms they mistakenly perceive that all deaths of women are femicides. This encourages a victim status, marginalizing the phenomenon making it trivial. Furthermore, it ends up fragmenting the rights of those incriminated or judged by supposed acts of femicide.

“In this sense, the punishable act is focused around a male perpetrator, in relation to virility, aggression and violence expressions and advancing them in a patriarchal structure. Also, configuring women as almost always the victim as if it was the only role they could exert. They scenario perpetuates the protecting role of the government by using punitive strategies with the purpose of protecting women as victims or underprivileged but not with the purpose of empowering women as with the same capabilities of men,” said Huertas.

Another aspect of the research project was verifying the scarce effectiveness of penalizing femicides in countries of the region. In Argentina, Guatemala, and Venezuela the figures of violence against women increase. Although Argentina con­siders femicide as an aggravating circumstance of homicide and apply life in prison punishment, the figures have increased, speaking volumes of the inoperability of these types of measures.

According to the findings of researchers Carlos Eduardo Maldonado, Cecilia Correa de Molina and Omar Huertas, the same occurs in Guatemala, where femicides are only penalized with 25 to 50 years in prison. Another significant case is Venezuela, especially for two reasons:

  • There are no records of femicide behavior.
  • Venezuela was classified in 2015 as the second most violent country in the world, inferring the consequences of these types of dynamics over the population.

In Colombia, besides the established in the Penal Code, Ley 1761 of 2015, also called the “Rosa Elvira Cely Law”, typified femicide as an autonomous crime and defined as: “Who causes the death of a woman, due to her condition as a woman or for reason of identity…”

Spanish lawyer María del Castillo Falcón Caro says that the purpose of laws on femicide is to drastically oppress homicides against women with certain characteristics. “It is a response against femicide, lastly seeking to create sufficiently enough fear as to continue submitting women but maintaining the status quo in relationships”.

To this respect Huertas says is that what they propose is to implement preventive educational measures to restructure cultural notions which have legitimized centuries of violence against women. “We need to educate the family, journalists who work in the media, teachers in educational institutions and inclusively mothers. A first step would be to rationalize the language used to promote respect among living beings, as the first thing is the right to life”.

Therefore, femicide should be a concept which evidences when violence is being exerted by reason of the feminine gender and not a trivial concept used in any circumstance.

 

Consejo Editorial